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Monday, 26 June 2017
 

Surat Al-Nisaa -4- Medinian –Ayats 176 – Section – Nine – Verses 105-126

 

Surely, We have sent down to you [O’ Muhammad- PPBUH] the Book [this Qur’an] in truth, that you might judge between men, as guided by that which God has shown you {taught you through Divine Revelation}; so do not be (used) as an advocate/pleader for the ones who betray their trust/treacherous. (105)    

إِنَّا أَنْزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ لِتَحْكُمَ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ بِمَا أَرَاكَ اللَّهُ وَلَا تَكُنْ لِلْخَائِنِينَ خَصِيمًا (105)

And seek the forgiveness of God, for God is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most-Merciful. (106)

وَاسْتَغْفِرِ اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ غَفُورًا رَحِيمًا (106)

And do not contend on behalf of those who betray/deceive their own souls. Verily, God does not like the one who is given to perfidy and crime/betrayer and sinner. (107)

وَلَا تُجَادِلْ عَنِ الَّذِينَ يَخْتَانُونَ أَنْفُسَهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ مَنْ كَانَ خَوَّانًا أَثِيمًا (107)

They may hide (their crimes) from men, but they cannot hide (them) from God; seeing that He is their midst (by His Knowledge) when they plot by night, in words that He does not approve, and God is Ever Encompass round all that they do. (108)

يَسْتَخْفُونَ مِنَ النَّاسِ وَلَا يَسْتَخْفُونَ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَهُوَ مَعَهُمْ إِذْ يُبَيِّتُونَ مَا لَا يَرْضَى مِنَ الْقَوْلِ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِمَا يَعْمَلُونَ مُحِيطًا (108)

Ah!-Lo! These are the sort of men on whose behalf you have contended in the world/life; but who will contend with God on their behalf on the Day of Resurrection, or who will carry their affairs through and be their defender? (109)

هَا أَنْتُمْ هَؤُلَاءِ جَادَلْتُمْ عَنْهُمْ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا فَمَنْ يُجَادِلُ اللَّهَ عَنْهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ أَمْ مَنْ يَكُونُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَكِيلًا (109)

And whoever does evil or, wrongs himself/his own soul: but afterwards seeks God’s Forgiveness, he will find God Oft-Forgiving, Most-Merciful. (110)

وَمَنْ يَعْمَلْ سُوءًا أَوْ يَظْلِمْ نَفْسَهُ ثُمَّ يَسْتَغْفِرِ اللَّهَ يَجِدِ اللَّهَ غَفُورًا رَحِيمًا (110)

And whoever earns sin, he earns it against himself/his own soul; for God is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise. (111)

وَمَنْ يَكْسِبْ إِثْمًا فَإِنَّمَا يَكْسِبُهُ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا (111)

And whoever earns a fault or a sin and throws it on someone innocent, he has indeed burdened himself with falsehood, manifest and flagrant sin. (112)

وَمَنْ يَكْسِبْ خَطِيئَةً أَوْ إِثْمًا ثُمَّ يَرْمِ بِهِ بَرِيئًا فَقَدِ احْتَمَلَ بُهْتَانًا وَإِثْمًا مُبِينًا (112)

 

Had it not been the Grace of God and His Mercy upon you [O’ Muhammad PPBUH], a party of them would certainly have plotted to lead you astray, but [in fact] they will only lead their own souls astray, and they can do harm to you in the least. For God Had sent down the Book [Qur’an] and wisdom, and taught you what you did not knew [before]. And Ever Great is the Grace of God to you [O’ Muhammad PPBUH]. (113)

وَلَوْلَا فَضْلُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكَ وَرَحْمَتُهُ لَهَمَّتْ طَائِفَةٌ مِنْهُمْ أَنْ يُضِلُّوكَ وَمَا يُضِلُّونَ إِلَّا أَنْفُسَهُمْ وَمَا يَضُرُّونَكَ مِنْ شَيْءٍ وَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَعَلَّمَكَ مَا لَمْ تَكُنْ تَعْلَمُ وَكَانَ فَضْلُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكَ عَظِيمًا (113)

 

There is no good in most of their secret talks; but if one exhorts to a deed of Charity, or justice-equity-amicability, or reconciliation between men [secrecy is permissible]: To him who does this, seeking the good pleasure of God; We shall soon give a reward of the highest value. (114) 

لَا خَيْرَ فِي كَثِيرٍ مِنْ نَجْوَاهُمْ إِلَّا مَنْ أَمَرَ بِصَدَقَةٍ أَوْ مَعْرُوفٍ أَوْ إِصْلَاحٍ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ وَمَنْ يَفْعَلْ ذَلِكَ ابْتِغَاءَ مَرْضَاةِ اللَّهِ فَسَوْفَ نُؤْتِيهِ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا (114)

 

And whoever contradicts and oppose the Messenger [Muhammad PPBUH] even after the Guidance [to the right path] has been plainly conveyed to him; and follows a path other than that becoming to men of faith. We shall leave him in the path he has chosen, and land him in Hell; What an evil destination/refuge. (115)

وَمَنْ يُشَاقِقِ الرَّسُولَ مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُ الْهُدَى وَيَتَّبِعْ غَيْرَ سَبِيلِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ نُوَلِّهِ مَا تَوَلَّى وَنُصْلِهِ جَهَنَّمَ وَسَاءَتْ مَصِيرًا (115)

 

Verily, God will not forgive (the sin of) joining/ setting other partners/gods with Him; but He Forgives whom He pleases/wills, sins other than this, and whoever sets up partners in worship with God has indeed strayed far, far away. (116)   

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَغْفِرُ أَنْ يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَلِكَ لِمَنْ يَشَاءُ وَمَنْ يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًا بَعِيدًا (116)

 

They {the Pagans} invoke nothing but female deities besides Him, and they invoke nothing but Satan, the persistent rebel! (117)

إِنْ يَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِهِ إِلَّا إِنَاثًا وَإِنْ يَدْعُونَ إِلَّا شَيْطَانًا مَرِيدًا (117)

 

God did curse him; but he {the Satan} said:”I will take an appointed/marked off portion of Your slaves/servants. (118)

لَعَنَهُ اللَّهُ وَقَالَ لَأَتَّخِذَنَّ مِنْ عِبَادِكَ نَصِيبًا مَفْرُوضًا (118)

 

“Verily, I will mislead them, and surely I will create in them the false desires; I will order them to slit the ears of cattle and to deface the [fair] nature created by God”. Surely, whoever forsaking God, and takes the Satan for a friend, has suffered a manifest loss. (119)   

وَلَأُضِلَّنَّهُمْ وَلَأُمَنِّيَنَّهُمْ وَلَآَمُرَنَّهُمْ فَلَيُبَتِّكُنَّ آَذَانَ الْأَنْعَامِ وَلَآَمُرَنَّهُمْ فَلَيُغَيِّرُنَّ خَلْقَ اللَّهِ وَمَنْ يَتَّخِذِ الشَّيْطَانَ وَلِيًّا مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ فَقَدْ خَسِرَ خُسْرَانًا مُبِينًا (119)

 

Satan makes them promises, and creates in them false desires; but Satan’s promises are nothing but deception. (120) 

يَعِدُهُمْ وَيُمَنِّيهِمْ وَمَا يَعِدُهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ إِلَّا غُرُورًا (120)

 

They (his dupes), will have their dwelling in Hell, and from it they will find no way of escape. (121)   

أُولَئِكَ مَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ وَلَا يَجِدُونَ عَنْهَا مَحِيصًا (121)

 

But those who believe, and do deeds of righteousness, We shall soon admit them to Gardens with rivers flowing beneath, to dwell there forever. God’s promise is the truth, and whose words can be truer than God’s? (122)

وَالَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ سَنُدْخِلُهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا وَعْدَ اللَّهِ حَقًّا وَمَنْ أَصْدَقُ مِنَ اللَّهِ قِيلًا (122)

 

It will not be in accordance with your desires [Muslims], nor those of the people of the Book/ Scripture (Jews and Christians), whosoever works evil, will have the recompense thereof, and he will not find and protector or helper besides God. (123) 

لَيْسَ بِأَمَانِيِّكُمْ وَلَا أَمَانِيِّ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ مَنْ يَعْمَلْ سُوءًا يُجْزَ بِهِ وَلَا يَجِدْ لَهُ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ وَلِيًّا وَلَا نَصِيرًا (123)

 

And whoever do deeds of righteousness, be male or female and have faith; they will enter Heaven/Paradise, and not the least injustice –even to the size of a Naqira=* will be done to them. (124) 

وَمَنْ يَعْمَلْ مِنَ الصَّالِحَاتِ مِنْ ذَكَرٍ أَوْ أُنْثَى وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَأُولَئِكَ يَدْخُلُونَ الْجَنَّةَ وَلَا يُظْلَمُونَ نَقِيرًا (124)

 

And who can be better in religion than one who submits his whole self to God, does good and follows the religion/way of Ibrahim the true in Faith? And God did take Ibrahim for [intimate] friend. (125)  

وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ دِينًا مِمَّنْ أَسْلَمَ وَجْهَهُ لِلَّهِ وَهُوَ مُحْسِنٌ وَاتَّبَعَ مِلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا وَاتَّخَذَ اللَّهُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ خَلِيلًا (125)

 

And to God belongs all the things that are in heaven and on earth: And God is Ever Encompassing all things. (126) 

وَلِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ مُحِيطًا (126)

 

 


((Illustration to verses 105-126: Beware of treachery, that would use the good and pious for its wicked ends; its plots will but recoil on its own head. The righteous have no cause for secrecy, except in doing well. It is evil that misleads, deceives, and even dares deface fair Nature which is created by God. Shun all evil, and be firm in righteousness and faith in God.))
COMMENTARY:  
(Verses 105-106)- The commentators explain this passage with reference to the case of Ta’ima ibn Ubairaq, who was nominally a Muslim, but really a Hypocrite, and given to all sorts of wicked deeds. He was suspected of having stolen a set of armor, and when the trail was hot, he planted the stolen property into the house of a Jew, where it was found. The Jew denied the charge and accused Ta’ima, but the sympathies of the Muslim community were with Ta’ima on account of his nominal profession of Islam. The case was brought to the Apostle, who acquitted the Jew according to the strict principle of justice, as “guided by God”. Attempts were made to prejudice him and deceive him into using his authority to favor Ta’ima. The general lesson is that the righteous man is faced with all sorts of subtle wiles; the wicked will try to appeal to his highest sympathies and most honorable motives to deceive him and use him as an instrument for defeating justice. He should be careful and cautious, and seek the help of God for protection against deception and for firmness in dealing the strictest justice without fear or favor. To do otherwise is to betray a sacred trust: the trustee must defeat all attempts made to mislead him.
(Verse 107)- Our souls are a sort of trust with us. We have to Guard them against all temptations. Those who surrender to crime or evil betray that trust. We are warned against being deceived into taking their part, induced either by plausible appearances, or by such incentives to partiality as that they belong to our own people or that some link connects them with us, whereas when we are out to do justice, we must not allow any irrelevant considerations to sway us.
(Verses 108-109-110)-The plots of sinners are known fully to God, and He can fully circumvent them if necessary, according to the fullness of His wisdom. The word used is “compass them round= Muhit-????”; not only does God Knows all about it, but He is all around it: If in His wisdom He allows it, it is not because He has no complete control over it, but because –but because having it as it were enclosed in a complete circle, He can use it to further His own Plan. Even out of evil He can bring good.
(Verses 111-112)- Kasaba=???: to earn, to gain, to work for something valuable, and to lay up provision for the future life. We do a day’s labor to earn our livelihood: so in a spiritual sense, whatever good or evil we do in this life, earns us good or evil in the life to come. In verses 110-112 three cases are considered: (1) if we do ill and repent, God will forgive: (2) if we do ill and do not repent, thinking that we can hide it, we are wrong; nothing is hidden from God, and we shall suffer the full consequences in the life to come, for we can never evade our personal responsibility: (3) if we do ill –great or small- and impute it to another, our original responsibility for the ill remains, but we add to it something else; for we tie round our necks the guilt of falsehood, which converts even our minor fault into great sin, and in any case brands us even in this life with shame and ignominy.       
(Verses 113-114-115)- Usually secrecy is for evil ends, or from questionable motives, or because the person seeking secrecy is ashamed of himself, and knows that if his acts or motives became known, he would make himself odious. Islam therefore disapproves of secrecy and loves and enjoins openness in all consultations and doings. But there are three things in which secrecy is permissible, and indeed laudable, provided that the motive be purely unselfish, to earn “the good pleasure of God”: (1) if you are doing a deed of charity or beneficence, whether in giving material things or in helping in moral, intellectual, or spiritual matters; here publicity may not be agreeable to the recipient of your beneficence, and you have to think of his feelings: (2) where an unpleasant act of justice or correction has to be done; this should be done, but there is no virtue in publishing it abroad and causing humiliation to some parties or adding to their humiliation by publicity: (3) when there is delicate question of conciliating parties to a quarrel; they may be very touchy about publicity but quite amenable to the influence of a man acting in private.
(Verse 116)- See verse 48. Blasphemy in the spiritual kingdom is like treason in the political kingdom.
(Verse 117)- The unity, power, and goodness of God are so manifest in nature and in the human mind when it is in accord with the universal spirit, that only the most abject perversion can account for the sin of spiritual treason. That sin arises from perverted ideas of sex or perverted ideas of self. The perversion of sex is to suppose that sex rules in spiritual matters. From it arise such horrible creations of imagination {as Kali= the blood-thirsty goddess of India, or Hecate the goddess of revenge and hate in Greek mythology. Even in beautiful forms like Sara watt –the goddess of learning- or Minerva –the virgin goddess of sports and arts-, to say nothing of Venus –the goddess of carnal pleasures}, the emphasis laid on sex destroys a right view of spiritual nature. Perverted ideas of self are typified in the story of Satan, who was so puffed up with arrogance that he disobeyed God, and God cursed him. Both these perversions, if allowed lodgment, completely ruin our spiritual nature and deface God’s handiwork. Hence it is not merely an outer sin but one that corrupts us through and through.
(Verse 118)- Satan obtained God’s permission to tempt man, and this was implied in such free-will as was granted to man by God. Satan’s boast is that the portion of mankind seduced by him will be so corrupted in their nature that they will bear a sort of brand that will mark them off as his own; or that they will be like a portion assigned to him.
(Verse 119-120-121-122)- Satan’s deceptions are with false desires, false superstitions, and false fears. Slitting the ears of cattle is just one instance of the superstition to which men become slaves when they run after false gods. Astrology, magic, and vain beliefs in things that does not exist, this will lead men away from the One True God. To deface the fair nature created by God; there is both a physical and a spiritual meaning. We see many kinds of defacements practiced on men and animals, against their true nature as created by God, partly on account of superstitions, partly on account of selfishness. Spiritually the case is even worse. How many natures are dwarfed or slaved and turned from their original instincts by cruel superstitions or customs? God created man pure; the Evil One defaces the image.
(Verse 123)- Personal responsibility is again and again insisted on as the key-note of Islam. In this are implied faith and right conduct. Faith is not an external thing: it begins with an act of will, but if true and sincere, it affects the whole being, and leads to the right conduct. In this it is distinguished from the kind of faith which promises salvation because someone else in whom you are asked to believe has borne away the sins of men, or the kind of faith which says that because you are born of a certain race (Children of Abraham), or certain caste, you are privileged, and your conduct will be judged by different standard from that of other men. Whatever you are, if you do evil, you must suffer the consequences, unless God’s Mercy comes to your help.
(Verse 124)*-Naqira=?????: the groove in a date-stone, a thing of no value whatever- verse 53.
(Verse 125)- Abraham is distinguished in Muslim theology with the title of “Friend of God”. This does not of course mean that he was anything more than a mortal. But his faith was pure and true, and his conduct was firm and righteous in all circumstances. He was the fountain and origin of the three streams of religious thought, which were afterwards crystallized in the institutions of Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad [PPBUH] the Chosen One.
(Verse 126)- Muhit = ???? :  See verse 108.