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Thursday, 17 August 2017
 

Surat Al-Nisaa -4- Medinian –Ayats 176 – Section – Twelve – Verses 159-176

And there is none of the People of the Book (Jews and Christians) but must believe in him (Jesus) before his death; and on the Day of Judgment he (Jesus) will be a witness against them. (159)

وَإِنْ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ إِلَّا لَيُؤْمِنَنَّ بِهِ قَبْلَ مَوْتِهِ وَيَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ يَكُونُ عَلَيْهِمْ شَهِيدًا (159)

For the iniquity/wrongdoing of the Jews We made unlawful for them certain {foods} good and wholesome which had been lawful for them; and for their hindering many from God’s Way. (160)

فَبِظُلْمٍ مِنَ الَّذِينَ هَادُوا حَرَّمْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ طَيِّبَاتٍ أُحِلَّتْ لَهُمْ وَبِصَدِّهِمْ عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ كَثِيرًا (160)

And their taking of (Riba) usury, though they were forbidden from taking it, and their devouring of men’s substance wrongfully; and We have prepared for those among them who reject Faith a grievous punishment/painful torment. (161)                       

وَأَخْذِهِمُ الرِّبَا وَقَدْ نُهُوا عَنْهُ وَأَكْلِهِمْ أَمْوَالَ النَّاسِ بِالْبَاطِلِ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَافِرِينَ مِنْهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا (161)

But those among them who are well-grounded in knowledge, and the believers, believe in what has revealed to you (O’ Muhammad PPBUH), and what was revealed before you; and (especially) those who establish/perform regular prayers, and give/ practice  regular charity and believe in God, and in the Last Day; to them We shall soon give a great reward. (162)

لَكِنِ الرَّاسِخُونَ فِي الْعِلْمِ مِنْهُمْ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا أُنْزِلَ مِنْ قَبْلِكَ وَالْمُقِيمِينَ الصَّلَاةَ وَالْمُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآَخِرِ أُولَئِكَ سَنُؤْتِيهِمْ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا (162)

Verily, We have sent the revelation/inspiration to you (O’ Muhammad PPBUH), as We have sent the Revelation/Inspiration to Noah and the Prophets after him; We (also) sent the Revelation to Ibrahim, Ismail, Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes (Al-Asbat), to Jesus, Job, Jonah, Aaron, and Solomon, and to David We gave the Psalms. (163) 

إِنَّا أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ كَمَا أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَى نُوحٍ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ وَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَالْأَسْبَاطِ وَعِيسَى وَأَيُّوبَ وَيُونُسَ وَهَارُونَ وَسُلَيْمَانَ وَآَتَيْنَا دَاوُودَ زَبُورًا (163)

And Messengers We have already narrated (their stories) to you before, and Messengers We Have not mentioned to you, - and to Moses God spoke directly. (164)

وَرُسُلًا قَدْ قَصَصْنَاهُمْ عَلَيْكَ مِنْ قَبْلُ وَرُسُلًا لَمْ نَقْصُصْهُمْ عَلَيْكَ وَكَلَّمَ اللَّهُ مُوسَى تَكْلِيمًا (164)

Messengers as constant bearers of glad tidings, as well as warning in order that mankind (after the coming of the Messengers) should have no plea against God. And God is Ever All-Powerful, Exalted, All-Wise. (165) 

رُسُلًا مُبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنْذِرِينَ لِئَلَّا يَكُونَ لِلنَّاسِ عَلَى اللَّهِ حُجَّةٌ بَعْدَ الرُّسُلِ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا (165)

But God bears witness to that which He has sent down (The Qur’an) to you [O’ Muhammad PPBUH], He has sent it down with His (own) Knowledge; and the Angels bear witness, and God is All-Sufficient as a Witness. (166)

لَكِنِ اللَّهُ يَشْهَدُ بِمَا أَنْزَلَ إِلَيْكَ أَنْزَلَهُ بِعِلْمِهِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ يَشْهَدُونَ وَكَفَى بِاللَّهِ شَهِيدًا (166)

Verily, those who disbelieve and reject Faith, and keep off (men) from the Way of God, certainly they have strayed far, far away from the Right Path. (167)

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَصَدُّوا عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ قَدْ ضَلُّوا ضَلَالًا بَعِيدًا (167)

Verily, Those who disbelieve and reject Faith and do wrong; God Will not forgive them, nor will He guide them to anyway. (168)

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَظَلَمُوا لَمْ يَكُنِ اللَّهُ لِيَغْفِرَ لَهُمْ وَلَا لِيَهْدِيَهُمْ طَرِيقًا (168)

Except the way of Hell, to dwell therein forever, and this ever easy to God. (169)

إِلَّا طَرِيقَ جَهَنَّمَ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا وَكَانَ ذَلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرًا (169)

O’ mankind! Verily, there has come to you the Messenger (Muhammad PPBUH] with the truth from your Lord. So believe in him, it is better for you. But if you disbelieve/reject Faith, then certainly to God belongs all things that in heavens and on earth. And God is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise. (170)

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ قَدْ جَاءَكُمُ الرَّسُولُ بِالْحَقِّ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ فَآَمِنُوا خَيْرًا لَكُمْ وَإِنْ تَكْفُرُوا فَإِنَّ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا (170)

O’ People of the Book/Scripture (Christians)! Do not exceed the limits in your religion, nor say of God aught but the truth. Christ Jesus son of Mary was (no more than) an Apostle/Messenger of God and His Word which He bestowed on Mary, and Spirit proceeding from Him; so believe in God and His Apostles/Messengers. Do not say (Trinity) = Three”. Cease/desist! {It is} better for you; for God is One God: Glorified is He; far Exalted is He, above having a son. To Him belong all things in the Heavens and on earth. And God is All-Sufficient as a Disposer of affairs. (171)

يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ لَا تَغْلُوا فِي دِينِكُمْ وَلَا تَقُولُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ إِلَّا الْحَقَّ إِنَّمَا الْمَسِيحُ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ وَكَلِمَتُهُ أَلْقَاهَا إِلَى مَرْيَمَ وَرُوحٌ مِنْهُ فَآَمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَلَا تَقُولُوا ثَلَاثَةٌ انْتَهُوا خَيْرًا لَكُمْ إِنَّمَا اللَّهُ إِلَهٌ وَاحِدٌ سُبْحَانَهُ أَنْ يَكُونَ لَهُ وَلَدٌ لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَكَفَى بِاللَّهِ وَكِيلًا (171)

Christ will not disdain to serve and worship God, nor do the Angels, those who are nearest to God, and whosoever disdain/reject His worship and are arrogant and proud, then He will congregate/ gather them all together to Himself. (172) 

لَنْ يَسْتَنْكِفَ الْمَسِيحُ أَنْ يَكُونَ عَبْدًا لِلَّهِ وَلَا الْمَلَائِكَةُ الْمُقَرَّبُونَ وَمَنْ يَسْتَنْكِفْ عَنْ عِبَادَتِهِ وَيَسْتَكْبِرْ فَسَيَحْشُرُهُمْ إِلَيْهِ جَمِيعًا (172)

But to those who believe, and do deeds of righteousness, He will give them their (due) reward, and more out of His Bounty. But for those who are disdainful and refused His worship, and are proud and arrogant, He will punish them with grievous penalty/painful torment. And they will not find for themselves besides God any protector or helper. (173) 

فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ فَيُوَفِّيهِمْ أُجُورَهُمْ وَيَزِيدُهُمْ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ وَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ اسْتَنْكَفُوا وَاسْتَكْبَرُوا فَيُعَذِّبُهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا وَلَا يَجِدُونَ لَهُمْ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ وَلِيًّا وَلَا نَصِيرًا (173)

O’ mankind! Verily, there has come you a convincing proof from your Lord, and We have sent down to you a light (the Qur’an) that is manifest. (174)

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ قَدْ جَاءَكُمْ بُرْهَانٌ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ وَأَنْزَلْنَا إِلَيْكُمْ نُورًا مُبِينًا (174)

So as for those who believed in God, and held fast to Him, He will admit them to His Mercy and Grace from Himself; and guide them to Himself by a Straight Way. (175)

فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَاعْتَصَمُوا بِهِ فَسَيُدْخِلُهُمْ فِي رَحْمَةٍ مِنْهُ وَفَضْلٍ وَيَهْدِيهِمْ إِلَيْهِ صِرَاطًا مُسْتَقِيمًا (175)

They ask you for a legal verdict/decision. Say: “God directs (thus) about {Al-Kalala} = (those who leave no descendants or ascendants as heirs). If it is a man that dies leaving a sister but no child, she shall have half the inheritance. If (such a deceased was) a woman who left no child, her brother takes her inheritance. If there are two sisters, they shall have two-thirds of the inheritance; if there are brothers and sisters, the male will have twice the share of the female. Thus does God make clear to you (His Law), lest you go astray? And God is the All-Knower of all the things. (176)

يَسْتَفْتُونَكَ قُلِ اللَّهُ يُفْتِيكُمْ فِي الْكَلَالَةِ إِنِ امْرُؤٌ هَلَكَ لَيْسَ لَهُ وَلَدٌ وَلَهُ أُخْتٌ فَلَهَا نِصْفُ مَا تَرَكَ وَهُوَ يَرِثُهَا إِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهَا وَلَدٌ فَإِنْ كَانَتَا اثْنَتَيْنِ فَلَهُمَا الثُّلُثَانِ مِمَّا تَرَكَ وَإِنْ كَانُوا إِخْوَةً رِجَالًا وَنِسَاءً فَلِلذَّكَرِ مِثْلُ حَظِّ الْأُنْثَيَيْنِ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ أَنْ تَضِلُّوا وَاللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ (176)

COMMENTARY:
(Verse 156)-The false charge against Mary was that she was unchaste; see Surat Maryam 19 verses 27-28. Such a charge is bad enough to make against any woman, but to make it against Mary –the Mother of Jesus- was to bring into ridicule God’s power itself. Islam is especially strong in guarding the reputation of women, slanderers of women are bound to bring four witnesses in support of their accusations, and if they fail to produce four witnesses, they are to be flogged with eighty stripes and debarred forever from being competent witnesses. See Surat Al-Nour- 24 verse 4.
(Verse 157)-The end of the life of Jesus on earth is as much involved in mystery as his birth, and indeed the greater part of his private life, except the three main years of his ministry. It is not profitable to discuss the many doubts and conjectures among the early Christian sects and among Muslim Theologians. The Orthodox Christian Churches make it a cardinal point of their doctrine that his life was taken on the Cross, that he died and was buried, that on the third day he raised in the body with his wounds intact, and walked about and conversed, and ate with his disciples, and was afterwards taken up bodily to heaven. This is necessary for the theological doctrine of blood sacrifice and the vicarious atonement for sins, which is rejected by Islam. But some of the early Christian sects did not believe that Christ was killed on the Cross. The Basilidans believed that someone else was substituted for him. The Docetae held that Christ has never had a real physical or natural body, but only an apparent phantom body, and that his Crucifixion was only apparent, not real. The Marcionite Gospel (about 138 A.D) denied that Jesus was born, and merely said that he appeared in human form. The Gospel of St. Barnabas supported the theory of substitution on the Cross. The Qur’anic teaching is that Christ was not crucified, nor killed by the Jews, notwithstanding certain apparent circumstances which produced that illusion in the minds of some of his enemies; that disputation, doubts, and conjectures on such matters are vain; and that he was taken up to God.
(Verse 158)- There is difference of opinion as to the exact interpretation of this verse. The words are: The Jews did not kill Jesus, but God raised him up (Rafa’hu=????) to Himself. One school holds that Jesus did not die the usual human death, but still lives in the body in heaven; another holds that he did die (Surat Al-Ma’ida – 5 verse 120) but not when he was supposed to be crucified, and that his being “raised up” to God means that instead of being disgraced as a malefactor –as the Jews intended- he was on the contrary honored by God as His Apostle: see next verse. The same word Rafa’a is used in association with honor in connection with Al-Mustafa [PPBUH]. See Surat Al-Sharh 94 – verse 4.
(Verse 159)- Before his death: Interpreters are not agreed as to the exact meaning. Those who hold that Jesus did not die (see last note) refer the pronoun “his” to Jesus. They say that Jesus is still living in the body and that he will appear just before the Final Day in preparation for the coming of Imam Al-Mahdi, when the world will be purified of sin and unbelief. There will be a final death before the final Resurrection, but all will have believed before that final death. Others think that “his” is better referred to “none of the People of the Book”, and the emphatic form “must believe” – La-yu’minana -??????)) denotes more a question of duty than fact. See verse 41.
(Verses 160-161-162)- The ceremonial law of the Jews forbade the eating of the flesh of the camel, rabbit and hare (Leviticus xi-4-6), and the fat of oxen, sheep, and goats (Leviticus vii-23), and was in other respects very strict.
(Verse 163)- First we have a general statement: the inspiration was sent to many Messengers, and the inspiration was of the same kind as that sent to the Apostle Muhammad [PPBUH], for God’s Message is one. Note that what is spoken of here is Inspiration, not necessarily a Book. Every nation or group of people had an apostle-(see Surat Yunus 10 verse 47). Some of these apostles have been mentioned by name in the Qur’an and some not-(verse 164). In Surat Al-Bagara 2 verse 136 and Surat Al-Imran 3 verse 84. The list here given is in three groups: (1) the first group, Abraham’s family, is the same as in verse 136 above (see the commentary) and in verse 84 as above. (2) Then we have the tragic figures of Jesus, Job, and Jonah, whose mission was from a worldly point of view unsuccessful. (3) Then we have Aaron the Priest and Solomon the King, both great figures, but each subordinate to another primary figure, i.e. Moses (mentioned in the next verse) and David (mentioned at the end of this verse). David’s distinction was the Psalms, which are still extant. Though their present form may possibly be different from the original, and they do undoubtedly include Psalms not written by David, the collection contains much devotional poetry of a high order.
(Verse 164)- God spoke to Moses on Mount of Sinai through a cloud: (Exod. xxxiv.5). Hence the title of Moses in Muslim theology: Kalimu-Allah=???? ????) (the one to whom God spoke).
(Verse 165)- Every Apostle proclaims God’s goodness to the righteous and forgiveness to those who repent (good news-glad tidings), and the wrath to come for those who reject faith and live in iniquity (warning). Their mission of warning is a prelude and complement to their mission of good news. No one can they say that he or she did not know.
(Verses 166-167-168) – Inspiration, though it is clothed in human language, and shaped to personality of the inspired one, proceeds from the knowledge of God, and therefore often contains more meaning than the inspired one himself realizes.
(Verse 169)- Easy- not in the sense that God takes any pleasure in any of His creatures going astray. The contrary is the case: for God’s Grace recognizes all goo in us to such an extent that it is compared to gratitude in verse 147. We must understand easy in the sense that God is Supreme in knowledge and power; if any forces of rebellion foolishly think that they can evade punishment, they are mistaken. Punishment comes as a matter of course. It is not a matter of difficulty or exertion on the part of God.
(Verse 170)- God’s solicitude for us is for our own good, not because He gets any advantage from it; for He is independent of all things, and everything declares His glory and praise.
(Verse 171)- Just as a foolish servant may go wrong by excess of zeal for his master, so in religion people’s excesses may lead them to blasphemy or a spirit the very opposite to religion. The Jewish excesses in the direction of formalism, racialism, exclusiveness, and rejection of Christ Jesus have been denounced in many places. Here the Christian attitude is condemned, which raises Jesus to an equality with God; in some cases venerates Mary almost adulatory; attributes a physical son to God; and invents the doctrine of the Trinity –opposed to all reason- which according to the Athanasius Creed, unless a man believes, he is doomed to hell forever. Let our Muslims also beware lest they fall into excesses either in doctrine or in formation.    Christ’s attributes are mentioned: (1) that he was the son of a woman –Mary- and therefore a man: (2) but an Apostle, a man with a mission from God, and therefore entitled to honor: (3) a Word bestowed on Mary, for he was created by God’s Word “BE”-Kun-?? – and he was (Surat Al-Imran 3- verse 59); (4) a spirit proceeding from God, but not God: his life and his mission were more limited than in the case of some other apostles, though we must pay equal honor him as a man of God. The doctrines of Trinity, equality with God, and son ship, are repudiated as blasphemies. God is independent of all need and has no need of a son to manage His affairs. The Gospel of John (whoever wrote it) has put in a great deal of Alexandrian and Gnostic mysticism round the doctrine of the word (Greek, Logos), but it is simply explained here, and our Sufis work on this explanation. 
(Verses 172-173)- Christ often watched and prayed as a humble worshipper of God; and his glory in the Garden of Gethsemane was full of human dignity, suffering, and self-humiliation (see Matt. xxvi.36-45). The disdainful and the arrogant are the crew of Satan, who will be gathered together before the Supreme Throne for punishment.
(Verse 174)- The Proof and the Light are the Qur’an and the Personality, Life, and Teaching of Muhammad Al-Mustafa-PPBUH.
(Verse 175)- From Himself= From His Presence: see Al-Imran 3 verse 195. The Mercy and Grace are expressed here as especially flowing from Him.
(Verse 176)- This verse supplements the rule of inheritance to the estate of a deceased person who has left as heir neither a descendant nor an ascendant. We shall call such a person A, who may be either male or female. In verse 12, A’s case was considered where he had left uterine brothers or sisters. Here A’s case is considered where he has left brothers and/or sisters by the father’s side, whether the mother was the same or not. “Brothers” and “Sisters” in this verse must be construed to be such brothers and sisters.