It is always informative and give more insight to the challenges facing Africa if you reread the valuable book
(The Challenges for Africa) written by the late famous environment activist and Nobel Literate the Kenyan Ms. Wangeri Maathai
I would like today to revisit with our readers , Chapter 9 in which the author focused on the “ The National Identity Crises in Africa”.
The root causes of the crises were created by the colonial powers that have drawn the borders of the African countries to suite their interests of domination and not the required harmony in these countries. We should not forget to point to that these were not unique to Africa only. But the colonial powers have done the same in Asia, South and Latin America in addition to the Middle East.
The other important point in this chapter among many is the label that the West stick to the conflicts in Africa that is,” Tribal Conflicts”. And so African societies are labeled as backward sinking in deep primitive conflicts.
While the backbone of the matter that these conflicts while in most cases are dressed by ethnic and tribal faces are in essence the conflict of the interests of the elites in these groups over power and wealth. And many of them have actually been narrated by the western colonial powers themselves.
This point to that the solution lies in a sustainable inclusive development based on wide participation of all citizens on the bases of good governance, the rule of law, transperancy and accountability.
When these principles are implemented and safeguarded by a real independent judiciary on the bases of the rule of law then we will see very few conflicts that can be easily addressed without that Africa will live in a vicious circle and its youth seeking asylum in the west for a better life and future.
So, in most cases the crises of identity is basically an elite product that camouflage their narrow interests and not that of their tribes let alone the national interests because in most cases they represent the biggest threat to national unity , human rights and inclusive development.
Same time fairness demand that it must be acknowledged that this is the situation in most part of the world and as international reports indicate that the rich are getting richer and the poor poorer and this is a situation that is not sustainable and a prescription for international insecurity in the short and long term.
Also, we must say that this is not only limited to developing countries but also developed countries were the political elite are laying the blame for the economic crises on the migrant ethnic minorities instead of the one percent rich among them.