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Friday, 20 October 2017

The Crisis of State and Boundaries in Africa

The State as has been widely used and identified by Western political thought perception was  applied to non-western

nations and consequentially has become the prevailed model came to be known as nation-states. Such political entity was extensively imposed and later adopted by all human organizational political behavior for four centuries in most parts of the contemporary world. The African continent was not only where the colonizer Western powers had been politically if not, scientifically justified under the umbrella of civilize its peoples as long as to came to know the White Man’s Burden! The political and economic privileges always supported by the imagined perceptions in making other nations destiny, those who were created within the Western scholars researches.  In postcolonial studies critique such tendencies are rhetorically described as in satire sense: nations as narration. However, neither political nor historical pretexts were merely untested abstract theories rather than bold applicable projects as a result of immoral pseudo-scientific outcomes as to Darwinian biological evolutionary by which non-western human race subjected to its classification. Nevertheless, the nation-state originated in European continent (Westphalia Agreement 1648) from where it emerged with its constitutional and political principles. This doesn’t mean the African continent was unfamiliar with the state and its apparatus. Historically, the tribal system and ancient Sultanate, Kingdoms and chiefdoms once existed in the continent had played a pivotal role in its political sophisticated organization. All this was engraved in the African archeological history. The de facto colorization has divided up the continent into separates states in terms of conventional international law, drafted by the colonized powers, though. Indeed, such states technically formed by a demarcated boundary line (cartography), although the postcolonial states had abided by them to avoiding any political collapse as to call of African enthusiast nationalists leaders in opposing with resisting action against colonization policies. The African Unity Organization AUO had asserted for preserving the traditional existed boundaries to be as they once delimited.
Later on, these boundaries have become a nightmare disputed areas, in particular over resources locations not to mention the interstates conflict such as Somalia and Ethiopia, Niger and Nigeria and Sudan Egypt ...etc. In  partly, these conflicts are with colonial background nature especially the areas were colonized by main former Western powers France and Britain who shared blame in portioning the lands of the continent in accordance to their interests and economic bases.  
The colorized powers mistakenly believed that, the state in Africa has preceded its societies as well as other vast areas in the globe at large, which rendered to become land of stateless. It is the way other nation lands was treated and annexed as Terra Nullius, no man lands. Then stated as such being created from outside by ignoring and abolishing the African traditional systems as to its socio-political and environmental components structure, which in turn oppose to the Western model is that immensely different to African one. At any rate, the postcolonial state in Africa has been characterized as failed state within the general analytical context. It deeply affected by lack of  good-governance, corruptions, civil conflicts, mismanagement and many other  dysfunctions to degree that can hardly comparable to any developmental and welfare standard in today world. In one word it is best to be described as withered and dehumanization conditions.
By geographical definition Africa is considered the most demarcated continent. In contrary to that, the cultures and indigenous peoples didn’t recognized such separating lines happened imposed forcefully. Following that, African countries have ignored to determine their boundaries, which resulted in unsettled conflicts along the international boundaries, especially in the rivers areas which formed mostly the African states boundaries. From historical- geographical perspective view, maps helps in understanding the history of the continent  and how it was affected by ecological factors and in addition to that its global outlook. Moreover, map tells how the continent was formed by invaded powers and to what extent it had been redesigned both as community and history. Such hypothesis might be doubted meanwhile the existing boundaries in their western version had created new racial realties among indigenous communities. The only thing that maps clearly made is expressed the conflict of colonized powers conflict of interests rather than the status of the native groups. 
Mindful, boundaries are not only determine the destiny of state, their impact have been extended to include boundaries in history, communities, cultures and races. For the Westerns scholars, the African ruling system and land regulations are nothing but, scattered primitive tribal without rulers subjected to pre-industrial era in their structure forms. However, no wonder the disputed areas conflicts related to the conflicting balance between the policy and land along with its anthropological ramifications that formed the core of African human ongoing devastation. Regardless, the given facts of the importance of boundaries in their political interpretations (geopolitics), the African states have been remained partitioned by what separated their people as well as land, a new concept of sovereign that never fully tested by African peoples themselves.  A sovereign that projected on the nation-state by which any country exercising its absolute jurisdiction right over its subjects legally or illegally altogether. While the phenomena of the globalization has overstepped the boundaries and became a steady threat to the conventional boundaries, but the other part of African continent still remain ruthlessly protecting what is thought to be unprotected.