The Nile Discourse Forum which was convened on 10 August and was addressed by Dr. Nadir Mohamed Awad who briefed the participants
on the past activities of the Forum and pointed to some future and ongoing programmes. Also, the Nile Discourse Forum General Secretary Mr. Mathias Nyanzi in his address to the forum expressed his pleasure at attending one of the Forum Sudan activities.
In his address Dr. Nadir said that:
It is my pleasure to address you this morning on behalf of the Sudanese National Discourse Forum [SNDF] executive committee SNDF is an NGO which was established in 2007 as one of the other 10 NDFs of the Nile riparian countries that constitute the Nile Basin Discourse [NBD].
The NBD aims at Promoting sustainable Development, Poverty reduction and cooperation between all stakeholders in the Nile Basin. The SNDF endeavors to establish suitable mechanisms that would ensure effective Participation of the Nile communities in the development process through the establishment of local Discourse forums along the Nile and its tributaries.
During the Past 10 years SNDF has implemented diversified activities to achieve its objects under the DFID funded Program.
The activities were manifested in national forums examples which are:-
Forum about the Cooperative Framework Agreement [CFA]-The forum has come up with a position statement later adopted by NBD.
Other forum about envisioning water security after Referendum in which the potential for joined cooperation and future activities were explored
Other forums on Nile cooperation for water and food security
SNDF celebrate every year the Nile Day on 22 of February under the Theme of the celebration which is formulated by the NBI. We usually celebrate the Nile Day in collaboration with the Ministry of Irrigation Electricity & water Resources.
SNDF organized a trans-boundary activity on the River Atbara. Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia Participated in this sub regional activity
SNDF is looking forward to build the capacities of our membership and the activity of today is one of our capacity Building activities.
Building new relations with government institutions and International Organizations in addition to strengthening the existing relations and Partnership with Ministries of Irrigation and water Resources, The NBI Desk. Exerting more efforts in fund raising to implement pilot activities with LDFs like the Bank Erosion Project in River Nile State and Eco tourism Project with Dongola LDF.
This is just a very brief description of our achievements and we are looking forward to intensify our activities especially with our LFFs.
Finally I hope that we will have a fruitful Discursion today with realistic recommendations that could be implemented successfully. A paper for discussion was presented by Mr. Mohamed Yousif Mabrouk on Climate Risk Management in Sudan.
Climate risks have significant correlation with climate change and environmental management. Drought and floods are the two most common and widely experienced risks in Sudan.
Loss and Damage:
In Sudan, El Niño has significantly impacted the 2015 rainy season with delayed rains, below-average rainfall and intermittent dry spells. This has caused reduced cultivation areas, delayed planting, poor pastures and limited water availability for both people and their livestock. These impacts threatened essential agricultural and livestock production across Sudan. The number of localities affected by El Niño was 82. Estimated affected people by El Niño in the first quarter of 2016 was 3.5 million (46 % pastoralists, 15 % crop farmers and 90% were in need of water). Total funding requested for the first three months (January – March 2016) amounted to $ 82 million.
In 2016 Heavy rainfall and floods resulted in terrified / horrified loss and damage in the country. According to the Flood Emergency Room of the Humanitarian Aid Commission (HAC) Task Force (composed of HAC, OCHA and SRC ),16 States (out of the total of 18) were affected by the heavy rainfall and runoffs of the 2016. 25163 houses were totally damaged, 14863 houses partially damaged, 40,025 households (201584 persons) affected, 556 persons injured and 102 persons dead.
10 villages to the east of Sinnar Locality (in Sinnar State)affected by heavy rainfall. 300 houses damaged and people lost great portion of their properties. (July 2017)
Heavy rainfall in some areas of the Gezira State caused tremendous damages and loses. The Minster of Health in the Gezira State informed the El Sayha newspaper that: 9 persons dead, 5 injured, 81 houses completely damaged, 770 houses partially damaged, 846 sanitary facilities collapsed and 2 government premises affected as a result of heavy rainfall. This information is for the period May 16th to July 12th 2017.
Heavy rainfall and runoff in While Nile State resulted in complete or partial damage of 900 houses in Kosti and Rabak. Primary schools in Kosti suffered serious damages. Three people reportedly died. Part of the asphalted highway between Rabak and Khartoum was removed / broken to allow for runoff reaching the While Nile River. Normal traffic on the highway between Rabak and Khartoum stopped for several hours.
Climate Monitoring, Observation and Early Warning:
The capacity of The Ministry of Water Resources (MoWR) for maintain and operating equipment to validate flood forecast has improved during this period. The status of existing hydrological equipment under the (MOWR) as on July 2017 compared to 2015 is as follows:
The Sudan Meteorological Authority (SMA) is responsible for data collection, analysis and exchange as well as the production of weather and climate information and products (including warning) to support social and economic development. Status of existing meteorological stations under the (SMA) in 2017 compared to 2015 are below:
Strategies, Policies, Plans and Assessments:
1/ Sudan National Disaster Risk Reduction Strategy 2016 – 2030
The strategy emphasizes preparedness on the part of the Central Government, the States, communities and other stakeholders in disaster Risk Reduction activities. The Strategy aims at establishing and strengthening related institutions, legislations, partnerships, networking, capacity building and mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction in the development process to enhance resilience of the country to potential disasters.
2/ Sudan Disaster Loss and Damage Database, Preliminary Analysis 2005 – 2016
This database offers a useful tool that can be used by the government and other institutions dealing with disasters to put forward plans for disasters management. The database provides valuable information about hazards and their impact on different analysis formats including composition temporal and special analysis.
3/ Sudan’s National Climate Change Policy and Measures:
This document is intended to facilitate coordinated, coherent and effective responses to local, national and global challenges and opportunities that climate change presents.
4/ National Adaptation Plan: The primary objective of this plan is to reduce vulnerability to the impacts of climate change by building adaptive capacity and resilience among state - and national- level institutions. A secondary, though equally important objective, is to promote the integration of climate change adaptation perspectives into new policies, programmes and activities.
5/ Technology Needs Assessment for Climate Change Adaptation: The objectives of this assessment are a/ assessing, identifying and submitting technology needs for adaptation to the COP of the UNFCCC, b/ enhancing public awareness on climate change and c/ capacity building in priority areas.
6/ Technology Needs Assessment for Climate Change Mitigation: Objectives of this assessment are: a/ to identify and prioritize technologies that can contribute mitigation / adaptation of the country, b/ to identify barriers hindering the acquisition, development and diffusion of the prioritized technologies for the mitigation options, and c/ to develop Technology Action Plan and enabling frameworks necessary to overcome the barriers and to facilitate the transfer, adoption and diffusion of selected technologies in Sudan.
7/ Standard Operating Procedure: This document describe regular recurring operations to ensure that the operations are carried out correctly (quality) and always in the same manner (consistency).
8/ A group of NGOs (SECS and others NGOs) established a Climate Change Platform in 2016. The objective of the planned CCP is to consolidate the efforts of all stakeholders and partners, into one entity, and prepare for a long term plan and concrete engagement, to respond to the climate change situation in Sudan. The CCP will be open to all the relevant stakeholders, including but not limited, to the local communities, private sector, research and academic institutions, NGOs, CBOs and governmental institutions.
The government is implementing many projects to manage and reduce the risks of the climate. Most of the interventions of those projects are designed to be climate change adaptation and mitigation measures. All the activities and intervention locations under this program are identified with a full participation of technical government officers from relevant line ministries and affected community members and other stake holders, so that the project embodies local capacity building, ownership, and sustainable project benefits. The following are some examples of what is going on the ground.
1/Project : Implementing Priority Adaptation Measures to Build Resilience of Rain fed Farmers and Pastoral Communities of Sudan, especially women headed households to the adverse impacts of Climate Change Adaptation Project.
Start date: June 2013 - End date: June 2016:
Funding: CIDA US$ 2.800.000.
Targeted States: - River Nile: (area of lower River Atbara),- North Kordofan:(area of Bara),- Gedarif:(area of Butana), and- South Darfur: (areas around Nyala).
Objective: Minimize and reverse food insecurity, enhance adaptive capacity and up-scaling the successful climate change adaption pilots of the GEF/LDCF NAPA implementation project. Implementation: Higher Council for Environment and Natural Resources.
2/ Project Title: Climate Risk Finance for Sustainable and Climate Resilient Rain fed Farming and Pastoral Systems.
Start Date: October 2014 - End Date: December 2018
Funding: $ 24,500,000
Targeted States: Kassala, Gedarif, River Nile, North Kordofan, South Darfur and White Nile.
Objective: To increase climate resilience of rain-fed farmers and pastoral communities in regions of high rainfall variability through climate risk financing.
Implementation: Higher Council for Environment and Natural Resources.
3/ Project Title: Drought Resilience for Sustainable Livelihoods Program.
Start date: 15/01/2016
Appraisal Date: 01/04/2015
Funding: African Development Bank – US$ 30,000,000.
Targeted States: Kassala, Gedarif and White Nile.
Objective: The project is designed to address the root causes of the enhanced, devastating slow onset disasters while building medium to long-term resilience.
Implementing Agency: Ministry of Livestock, Fisheries and Rangelands.
4/ Project Title: Sudan Livestock Marketing and Resilience Programme.
Start date 2015 -End date 2021
Funding: US$119.2 million -IFADUS$ 24.5 - Cofinancing LDCF– GEF, Central Bank of Sudan, Local banks, PPP partners and recipients.
Targeted States:Greater Kordofan(North – South – West), White Nile, Sinar and Blue Nile.
Objective: The overall goal of the project is to increased food security, incomes and climate resilience for poor households in pastoralist communities.
Implementation: Ministry of Livestock, Fisheries and Rangelands.
5/ Project Title: Enhancing the resilience of communities living in climate change vulnerable areas of Sudan using Ecosystem Based approaches to Adaptation (EbA).
Start date 2017 End date 2021
Funding: UNEP $ 4,284 million + $ 11,100,000 cofinancing
Target State: White Nile State.
Objective: Increase the climate change resilience of livelihoods and integrated productive agriculture systems in the White Nile State through Ecosystem Based Adaptation Approaches
Implementation: Higher Council for Environment and Natural Resources.
Successful climate risk management and adaptation not only depends on governments, but also on the active and sustained engagement of stakeholders including national, regional, multilateral and international organizations, the public and private sectors, civil society and other relevant stakeholders, as well as effective management of knowledge. Adaptation to the impacts of climate change may be undertaken across various regions, and sectors, and at various levels.
Mabrouk pointed to the low capacity and preparedness of the public institutions that are responsible for addressing climate change risks and managing them in addition there is lack of access to information on all aspects of the issue. This make the real avaluation of the degree of preparedness to face natural crises a very difficult job. The paper was followed by a discussion by the participants mostly stressing on that to date climate change risk management is not adequate , lack proper funding and the low human capacity of the institutions supposed to address the challenge .