It is an invitation for the protection of Human beings and other living creatures, Land, Ground Water, Surface Water amd the Air
“Industrial waste; Highlighting”
The balance between industrial developments and the sustainable use of natural resources is to utilize the waste as alternative raw material/Alternative Fuel, as appropriate as you can to substitute raw materials/Fuel in many production and manufacturing process where the need of caloric energy/Heat such as Cement making companies, Steel manufacturing process, metal casting, production of goods or related services within an economy Manufacturing industry.
This scope will result positively in opening new business opportunities and ideas for Government or privet sector as well as researchers and individuals by other hand it will directly reduce the operational/ Manufacturing costs with a few changes in the system or process.
After reading these guiding tools you will be able to think about foreseeable future, the dream image of the green and clean cities can be present within one step forward towards the reality.
We have waste, what is the next step?
Where recycling is not possible , Incineration or Landfill is the most common disposal practice for many wastes, However in Sudan we have irresponsibility lead to have huge piles of waste and hazards waste everywhere regardless the risk and the harmfully results to the people ,land and air (Environment).
In the begging let define some terminologies that we will use it in this article.
Waste and wastes are unwanted or unusable materials.
Waste is any substance which is discarded after primary use, or it is worthless, defective and of no use.
Examples include municipal solid waste (household trash/refuse), hazardous waste, wastewater (such as sewage, which contains bodily wastes (feces and urine) and surface runoff), radioactive waste, and others.
Industrial waste is the waste produced by industrial activity which includes any material that is became useless during a manufacturing process in factories, industries, mills, and mining operations. Some examples of industrial wastes are chemical solvents, paints, sandpaper, paper products, industrial by-products, metals, and radioactive wastes.
The industrial waste classified into two types:-
(a) Hazardous waste and (b) Non-hazardous waste.
A- Examples of Hazardous Waste Generated by Industries and Businesses:
Waste Generator and Waste Types
1- Chemical Manufacturers: Acids and Bases, Spent Solvents, Reactive Waste, Wastewater Containing
2- Printing Industry: Heavy Metal Solutions, Waste Inks, Solvents, Ink Sludge Containing Heavy Metals.
3- Petroleum Refining Industry: Wastewater Containing Benzene & other Hydrocarbons
Sludge from Refining Process.
4- Leather Products Manufacturing: Toluene and Benzene.
5- Paper Industry: Paint Waste Containing Heavy Metals, Ignitable Solvents.
6- Construction Industry: Ignitable Paint Waste, Spent Solvents, Strong Acids and Bases.
7- Metal Manufacturing: Sludge containing, Heavy Metals ,Cyanide Waste.
B- Non-Hazardous Industrial Waste Classification:
- Regulated asbestos containing material;
- Materials containing specific toxic chemical constituents which exceed regulated concentration levels, although not enough to be considered hazardous;
- Semi-solids and solids which when combined with water exhibit corrosive properties;
- Waste associated with exploration, development and production of crude oil, natural gas or geothermal energy.
- Non-surgical non-radioactive medical waste.
- Paper, linings, wrappings, paper packaging materials, industrial radioactive.
- Food waste, glass, aluminum foil, plastics, foam and food packaging that result from plant production, manufacturing or laboratory operations.
- Chemically inert and insoluble substances, high concentrated hydrocarbons, and waste which poses no threat to human health and/or the environment, solid waste materials such as rock, brick, glass, dirt and some rubbers and plastics.
About Sudan: Sudan Industrial grew started in the 1960s, Industrial and mining operations have been accompanied by a problem: industrial waste which may be toxic, ignitable, corrosive or reactive. If improperly managed, this waste can pose dangerous health and environmental consequences. The amount of hazardous waste generated by manufacturing industries in the country still uncounted and the records based on estimations.
Why do we care about Hazardous Waste?
1- Risky part:-
- Mixing unknown waste together can re-act and generate toxic gasses (silent killer).
- Handling of waste should be in safe way otherwise it can be harmful causing many diseases if direct contact or leak/Spillage occurs.
- Hazardous and many "non-hazardous" industrial waste are inherently dangerous to human health and the environment no matter how they are managed;
- The specific health effects of many toxic substances are not well understood, and past experience with toxics such as dioxin has shown us that some toxic chemicals can accumulate in the environment for many years before their worst effects are revealed.
2- The Substitution value :-
- As Raw materials like carbon, Ash, Iron, Silicon and Aluminum.
- As Energy like Biomass, wood, Paper, plastics, Agricultural waste.
3- Advantages and earned value
A- Environmental Benefits:
- Reducing the consumption of raw materials and by reducing the volume of waste materials that must be treated and disposed of.
- Recycling hazardous waste can mean less air, water, and soil pollution associated with the extraction, refining, and processing of raw materials.
- Recycling also can reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs).
- When hazardous wastes are recycled, less energy is needed to extract, transport, and process raw materials and to manufacture products.
> Emissions of other air pollutants can be reduced, too, as recycling hazardous waste can decrease releases of air toxics from waste incineration.
B- Economic Benefits
> Recycling hazardous waste can increase production efficiency and reduce costs associated with purchasing raw materials and waste management.
> A business may also benefit from the positive or "green" image associated with hazardous waste recycling efforts For example.
> Increase goodwill with shareholders and consumers and community.
“Action plan Highlights”
> Create a waste policy.
> Start with waste reduction measures that are inexpensive and easy to implement.
> Information, Manage and track information such as regular reports on tonnage amounts and waste generators (Type/amount of waste).
> Handling. Identify how recyclable materials will be handled (e.g., on-site collection and processing, off-site transport).
> Authorities and investors share ideas and demands.